Economic Important Traits of Buffalo and Their Implication

1. Introduction

Buffaloes have been raised under farming systems of Nepal throughout the known history. They are the traditional provider of milk, meat, hides, manure, draft power and also the reserve capital for the farm families. They are mainly raised by the smallholder farmers across all the physio-graphic agro-ecological (Agro-eco) zones of the country. Due to a key role played by buffalo in the farming systems of the country from the time immemorial to date, interest in this livestock species is ever growing as more systematic planning is adopted for growth of the country’s agrarian economy.

Economic traits are those traits which monetary value in the production of livestock. Many traits in farm animals are affected by many pairs of genes and there is no sharp distinction among phenotypes but there is more or less continuous range from one phenotypic expression to another. These are known as quantitative trait or economic trait. Environment has great influence on the expression of most quantitative traits.

1.1. Geographical distribution:

There are three main indigenous breeds of buffaloes making up the buffalo population of Nepal. They are Gaddi, Parkote and Lime. The three breeds correspond to altitude and agro ecological zones. The Parkote are found in high altitude. Lime buffaloes are found in mid hills. Gaddi buffaloes are found in terai region

1.2. National scenario:

Official statistics (CBS, 1997) shows that Nepal has currently a population of 3.34 million buffalo which are distributed throughout the country’s Agro-eco zones or the administrative development regions (See map) as presented in Table 1. The statistical figures indicate that the buffalo number is highest in Western Development Region (28.2%), followed by Central (24.3%) and Eastern (20.7%) regions. Overall across the Agro-eco zones, 57% of the buffalo populations are found in the middle hills, followed by Terai plains (33.1%) in the South and Mountains (9.1%) in the North. Analyzing the 1993 data, Moioli (1996) reported that Nepal ranked seventh in total number of buffalo among the countries world over, while there has been the trend of increase in the population between 1979 and 1993 by 28%.

Table 1. Buffalo population distribution across the physio-graphic agro-ecological zones and development regions in Nepal (figures in 000).

Agro-eco zones Development Regions Total
Far-western Mid-western Western Central Eastern
Mountains 89.3 31.8 0.2 96.5 86.6 304.5
Hills 184.3 265.7 756.1 410.0 302.9 1918.7
Terai 136.0 192.8 193.2 311.2 306.0 1139.2
Total 3409.6 490.3 949.6 817.5 695.4 3362.4
Source: CBS, 1997.

1.3. Problems associated with buffalo farming in Nepal

The existing population of buffaloes contributes about 71% of the total milk produced in the country . The demand for milk and meat is large, and these animals are also important for religious purposes. The present buffalo populations of the country are not able to meet current market demands, and so large numbers of live animals are imported from India.

Table 18: Per capita meat production in different countries.

Country

Meat produced/head/year (kg)

Nepal 7.6
Canada 101.1
USA 113.5
Denmark 285.2
UK 59.3

Source: FAO (1988)

The present constraints upon the existing management systems need to be identified to increase the productivity per animal, and some of these are now described.

Available Resources

Animal resources:  Buffaloes of Nepal are hardy and are adapted to harsh environments with a low plane of nutrition. Lime have draught tolerant capacity, Gaddi is high yielding heavy breed but have variable rates of offspring survival and exhibit wide variation in productive and reproductive performance at different localities and under different management. Buffaloes in Nepal are generally small in body size, but selection for improvement is not practiced by farmers, and indiscriminate breeding results in maintenance of a low level of productivity from generation to generation. Steps towards the improvement in traits such as litter size, frequency of calving, calf survivability, growth rate, adult body weight, have not yet been taken.

Feed resources: At present, the country is in a state of animal feed deficit. The pressure of increasing human population requires an increase in agricultural production, and this has led to an increase in the area under cultivation. Furthermore, there is a lack of forest and pasture improvement, and a high density of livestock. Pasture management in most parts of the country is traditional, generally inefficient, and efforts made to improve it are inadequate. Communal grazing lands are becoming unproductive due to overgrazing, and the palatable forest undergrowth is changing to unpalatable species and weeds. The total available forage resources of the country are inadequate to meet the nutritional demands of livestock in terms of dry matter (DM), total digestible nutrients (TDN) and crude protein (CP).

The mountain region has sufficient feed resources at present, but the same is not true for the hills and the Terai. For the hill region, Rajbhandary and Pradhan (1991) reported that the high hills have a positive feed balance, but the mid-hills face an acute deficiency. The feed deficiency in the lower hills is forcing animals to move upwards in search of food. The deterioration of pasture quality, deforestation and conversion of forest to scrubland, especially in the densely populated lower and mid-hills, is placing the animals under increasing stress and decreasing their production.

At the present population levels, TDN required supporting dry or unproductive cattle and buffaloes are 23% of the total TDN requirement (Rajbhandary and Pradhan, 1991). Therefore, it is not the small ruminants, but the large ruminants, that are responsible for the shortage of fodder in the country. Since cattle and buffaloes are competing for forage with sheep and goats throughout the year, and particularly during the winter, small ruminants are facing nutritional deficiency. Available resources are not utilized effectively. Alpine pastures are traditionally (and now illegally) owned by certain communities or villages, while other communities or village lack such a traditional privilege. The latter depend upon the goodwill of those who own the land, require permission to take their animals there every year, and have to pay for use of the land. The major drawback of this system is that without traditional ownership of pasture land, often find difficultly in securing adequate grazing, whilst communities that “own” the pasture may not even use it.

Management System

Animal husbandry in Nepal, is based on traditional practices, and goats receive very little care. Under the present system, farmers neither practice selection, nor follow an organized breeding system, and a large number of unproductive animals are maintained to compete for feed with the more productive ones. Feed conservation practices are not generally implemented in most parts of the country, and any fodder that is conserved is reserved for large ruminants. Buffaloes lose condition throughout the winter, which can be so severe that it takes up to four months for animals to regain body condition lost during this time (Karki, 1985).

 Poor pasture quality forces animals to utilize forest resources. Overgrazing/browsing is adversely affecting the forest vegetation, and so lack of proper pasture management is leading to forest deterioration. The same is true for pastures , and in many “Kharkas” palatable grasses are being replaced by thorny weeds.

Marketing

There is no organized marketing system for livestock, or livestock by-products in Nepal, so they do not realize a remunerative price. An organized market in the form of a ‘hat’, is observed weekly in some parts of the Terai, where traders and farmers can sell their produce in a competitive manner, but no such system exists in most parts of the hills. Farmers are compelled to sell their animals without market competition, and in a limited market situation which is often controlled by middlemen who have a monopoly over purchase of sheep and goats in a particular hill area. Farmers cannot time their sale to realize an optimum price, but have to wait for a customer. In some remote areas this period is annual, at the Dashain Festival. The lack of a regular market does not encourage a commercial approach.  The annual marketing prior to Dashain itself leads to unnecessary retention of animals in the flocks, which is not only uneconomic, but also increases pressure on the limited feed resources.

Technology Transfers

Present livestock extension policies seem unable to prepare farmers for the adoption of new technologies. Even simple improvements to the existing system which could substantially increase income or decrease losses are not adopted. The inability to implement technologies that are convincing to the farmers, to train them properly, or to make the necessary inputs available may be reasons for these inadequacies. For example, the timely injection of Terramycin is known to be effective in preventing “six-month” disease in young lambs, but the disease is still responsible for high levels of mortality, because the farmers are not aware of the drug’s availability, nor are they trained in its use.

Under such circumstances, very few farmers are willing to relinquish traditional farming practices in favor of new ones. This is mainly because of the lack of necessary inputs for improved farming practices where they are needed. The lack of provision of even a single input may have a negative effect on the adoption of the whole technology. For example, to realize maximum benefit from crossbreeding indigenous animals with exotic breeds, the crossbreds require a better plane of nutrition, preventive health care, and improved husbandry practices. An incomplete set of inputs, and lack of practical training is responsible, to some extent, for ineffective technology transfer, and hence a reduced rate of change from traditional farming .

Ecological Balance

To fulfill the requirements of an increasing human population, more and more land is being cultivated, and in the hills every piece of land that can be effectively used for grain production, is being cultivated. There is continuous deforestation for agricultural work and fodder provision and large numbers of cattle and buffalo are creating more pressure on the available resources. If the present rate of deforestation and the consequent soil erosion continues, the country may face an ecological disaster, with the consequence that the nutritional problems for livestock will be further aggravated, resulting in reduced production of meat, milk.

Disease:

 Brucellosis is the major disease that causes reduction in the reduction of reproductive performances of buffalo due to abortion. Foot and mouth diseases, black quarter and anthrax are other major diseases that affect the performance. The vaccinations are not given in proper time. The farmers are not  cautious of it. Even the farmers are aware about it , in some areas it is not available, and the technicians are not available thouroughout the country.

2.LITERATURE REVIEW:

2.1. Indigenous breeds of buffalo in Nepal:

Different indigenous breeds of buffalo in Nepal

  • Lime
  • Parkote
  • Gaddi

Lime buffalo

A Lime breeds buffalo in the western hills (Photo  by Dr. D.P. Rasali)

The pure breed Lime (pronounced as lime) is believed to have originated from wild Arna (Bubalus arnii), and has been domesticated throughout the known history of Nepal. They are found more towards the higher altitude of the hills in the country. The Lime buffalo is estimated at 35% of the total indigenous buffalo population in the hills and mountains of the country as calculated from the data from Rasali (1998) and Rasali (2000).

Phenotypically, the Lime buffalo are light brown and relatively small in body size, with characteristic chevrons of gray or white hair below the jaws and around the brisket, and small sickle shaped horns curved towards the neck (Rasali 1998).They have gray coat color; gray  brown or blackish skin color,  black muzzle; grayish, brownish or whitish eye brow; grayish, brownish or whitish leg markings; whitish chevron marks around the neck and brisket (Rasali et al., 1998b).

Data averaged for adult females (n=96) are as follows :Body weight=399.1 kg; Height at wither=115.1; Body length =126.3 cm; Girth = 168.4;face length= 44.7 cm; Fore head width= 21.5 cm; Horn base circumference=20.6 cm Horn length= 46.2 cm. (Rasali et al., 1998b). Wither Height averaged 20 cm; Ear length averaged 20 cm; Average tail length is 82 cm (Pradhan et al, 1996).

Parkote buffalo:

A Parkote breed buffalo in Palpa district in the western hills.  Other Parkote buffalo (on the background) wallowing in a village pond (Photo by Dr. D.P. Rasali)

Parkote buffalo are the typical buffalo of the mid hill and river valleys of Nepal. However, due to traditional practice of crossbreeding this breed with Lime buffalo and also due to recent crossbreeding efforts with Indian Murrah, their population in pure form is declining. Now, pure breed population is estimated at only 25 % of the indigenous population of buffaloes in the hills and mountains in Nepal.

 

Phenotypically, the Parkote buffalo are dark in coat color and medium built body size, with sword-shaped horns directed laterally or towards the back of the body (Rasali, 1998; Pradhan et al., 1996).They have black coat color; black skin color; black muzzle; black eye brow; usually no leg markings; and chevron marks absent (Rasali et al., 1998).

Biometrical data averaged for adult females (n=88) as follows :Body weight=409.9 kg; Height at wither=114.9 cm; Body length =124.7 cm; Girth = 170.5 cm; face length= 44.6 cm; Fore head width= 21.2 cm; Horn base circumference=20.9 cm; Horn length= 46 cm. (Rasali et al., 1998).

Gaddi buffalo

The Gaddi buffalo found in the Dadeldhura, Baitadi and Doti districts of the Far-western region are good milkers that utilize the pasture land in the slopes of mid-hills and high mountains. These animals are usually found in a 5482 km2 area at an elevation of 1500-4500 m. The total number of buffaloes in the region has been estimated at 1,01,500. There are about 16,000 purebred Gaddi buffaloes and 50,000 crosses with the indigenous Lime and Parkote populations, and the Murrah breed. The Gaddi buffaloes are predominantly black in color with a white round patch on the forehead. Occasionally, brown and light brown colored animals are seen. These animals have a long face and flat head with long curved horns. The Gaddi buffaloes are massive with an angular shaped body and sloped hip. The morphological characteristics and production performance of the Gaddi buffaloes are similar to the indigenous Lime and Terai buffaloes. The morphological characteristics and production performance of the Gaddi buffaloes have been summarized. The number of pure breed Gaddi buffaloes is gradually decreasing due to the indiscriminate use of bulls of the imported Murrah breed to increase milk production. If the process continues, the Gaddi buffalo may become extinct in the near future. Thus, an appropriate strategy for the improvement and conservation of the Gaddi buffaloes needs to be introduces.

A study on indigenous Gaddi buffalo of far-western region of Nepal was conducted to understand the production parameters and husbandry practices intending to make future strategy for improvement. The breed is well known in  the far-western districts of Nepal and adapted in hills and mountains of the region with diverse climatic conditions. Among 3 identified buffalo breeds (Gaddi, Lime and Parkote) and one under study (Terai), Gaddi was found morphologically larger (p<0.01) and docile in temperament. Major population of Gaddi was found to be black in color and some brown and light brown. Morphologically, it looks like Indian Murrah, however white round patch on the middle of forehead and tuft of the tail, and semi-curved horn shape are the distinguished characters. The average ages at puberty, first calving and calving interval was 3.8, 5.7 and 2.0 years respectively. Lactation length varied from 14 to 22 months and milk yield from 2.5 to 5.5 liters/day. Major problems recorded were lack of pure breeding bulls, negative selection, feed scarcity, poor technical know-how and health management. The paper discusses on the overall buffalo management system in  the far-western region of Nepal and suggests improvement plan with maximum utilization of locally available farm resources.

2.2. Importance of buffalo farming in Nepal:

The estimates of buffalo milk and meat production for the year 1996/97 are shown in table 2 showing that most of the milk and meat production was distributed in three of five development regions, Western, Central and Eastern, with their percentage of milk produced being 31.6, 27.6 and 18.9 respectively, and that of meat produced being 22.6, 31.4 and 21.7 respectively (CBS, 1997). The figures of buffalo products amounted to 69% of the total milk production and 65% of the total meat production in the country (Singh and Chapagain, 1999). The level of buffalo milk production also places Nepal among a few other countries, viz. India, Pakistan and Egypt where the buffalo milk has been evidently the main animal food (Moioli, 1996). National Planning Commission estimates for 1993 showed that the total livestock gross domestic product (GDP) amounted to the tune of NRs 11, 314 millions (currently, US$ 1 = NRs 68) which is 26.7% of the total agricultural GDP in the country, and buffalo is the key livestock species contributing about 53% of the total livestock GDP, mainly through the production of milk and meat (Singh and Chapagain, 1999).

Table 2. Buffalo milk and meat production across the development regions of Nepal (1996/97).

Development Regions Milking buffalo and milk production Buffalo meat produced(000 mt)
No. of milking cows(000 Nos.) Buffalo milk produced
(000 mt)
Eastern 167.4 132.3 24.6
Central 207.3 194.0 37.9
Western 373.1 221.8 25.7
Mid-western 94.5 74.5 12.9
Far-western 115.0 79.4 12.5
Total 957.4 702.0 113.5
Source: CBS, 1997.

Contribution of buffalo to soil fertility management is an integral component of farming systems in Nepal (Rasali et al., 1996). The buffalo drought power is of particular importance to Terai plains and inner Terai valleys. Other by-products from buffalo such as hides and bones, and also the use of buffalo as the reserve capital assets of the smallholder farm families have significant importance to the rural economy of the country. In addition, export of buffalo ghee (clarified butter oil) to India is a traditional foreign exchange earner for Nepal. The total ghee exported through the major customs points located in Bhairahawa, Nepalganj and Dhangadi areas amounted to NRs 44.2 millions in 1994/95 (Customs Dept., 1995). And, recently, an avenue of fluid milk export to India is also opened indicating the further potential contribution from the multipurpose buffalo production in the country. However, despite high economic importance of buffalo with their large domestic population, Nepal has also been importing buffaloes annually from India to the tune of 120 thousands (Shrestha et al 1998) mainly for meat supply in Kathmandu, the country’s capital city and upgrading Domestic herds with Indian Murrah breed.

2.3. ECONOMIC TRAITS OF BUFFALO:

Phenotypic trait:

One of the first steps in developing a breeding programme is to consider which phenotypic traits are of importance. From a practical standpoint, traits with a measurable or at least readily recognizable economic value are generally to be given the most emphasis, although traits that provide a less tangible utility for cultural or other reasons may also be considered important. The economic traits are typically those that affect either the income obtained or the costs of production.

In the South Asia Pacific region (SAP), the sale or home consumption of milk, meat, dung, and skin of the animals and the sale of surplus animals for breeding and meat are the main sources of economic returns of cattle and buffalo farmers. In addition, many farmers use themselves or rent out their animals for draft purposes, either providing an additional source of income or saving the costs of contracting out for these services.

Production traits:

Traits associated with income are typically called production traits. For dairy cattle and buffaloes, these traits are those that are associated with milk production. In most of the countries in the SAP, farmers are paid according to the kilograms of milk sold, so milk yield is obviously a trait of high economic importance. When milk is sold in a formal market, the price paid per kilogram may be adjusted based on concentrations of milk solids.

Fat content is almost always considered under such a system, but payment for protein or solids-not-fat is becoming increasingly common. The milk of buffaloes is priced 1.5 to 2 times than cow milk due to its greater concentration of milk solids(17 to 19% versus around 13%) and in certain areas it may be mixed with cow milk to increase the thickness of cow milk and, in turn, improve its market acceptability.

For beef cattle, economic value of a cow or buffalo is logically based on the amount of meat expected to be obtained from the animal. In contrast to industrialized countries, the sale price is not always based on formally weighing the animal and paying a certain price per kilogram. Rather, the animal is often priced as a whole. Nevertheless, larger animals fetch a higher price, so some measure of body weight is of particular importance. Reaching a mature weight as quickly as possible is advantageous, so weights at different ages, such as weaning, one year-of-age, and slaughter, can be taken to evaluate growth rate.

Age at slaughter can also be used to account for growth rate; younger animals would be favored. Birth weight is also often considered important for beef cattle, but largely for calving difficulty rather than production, so smaller birth weight may be preferred. Carcass quality traits can be important for some of the countries in the SAP, but in most cases this variable is not considered in the sale price, so a farmer cannot economically justify considering it in a selection goal.

Traction is also an important output of cattle and buffalo in the SAP. Animals with long legs, straight barrels and tight skin are generally assumed to be stronger and thus favored for draft purposes. The Bos indicus males with large humps and well-developed dewlaps are preferred because of more dissipation of heat due to a larger surface area and more body reserves for drought periods.

Reproduction traits:

 Reproduction traits are also important more so in dairy animals. For beef cattle, the number of offspring produced determines the number of animals available for sale. Consistent reproduction is also important for dairy cattle and buffaloes because daily yield is highest in the months immediately following parturition and because longer dry periods (resulting from failure to conceive quickly) result in greater costs for maintenance without any income. Both late age at first calving (AFC) and long intervals between calving, especially in Bos indicus cows and riverine buffaloes, have been often cited as constraints to profitability in cattle farming in the SAP.

Animal health:

Animal health is important for a number of reasons. First, sick animals require costs for treatment. Healthy animals also tend to produce more meat and milk and reproduce more regularly. The climatic conditions of many of the SAP countries can be demanding, with high temperatures, both extremes in precipitation and high risk for disease, so animals that are naturally resistant to problems associated with these adverse conditions are of high value.

Management:

Traits associated with management may also be worth considering. Increased longevity is important for a number of reasons. If their animals live longer, farmers can have the opportunity to sell excess animals or expand their herds, both of which would increase the potential for income. Increased longevity also allows for more opportunities for genetic selection. Because disease often leads to death or culling, the animals that live the longest are often those most resistant to health problems. For many indigenous cattle breeds, the presence of or suckling by a calf is necessary to ensure milk let-down. The milk consumed by the calf can obviously not be sold.

In truth, this may not result in much waste, inasmuch as the milk consumed can improve both the health and growth rate of the calf, but selecting for milk let-down without this source of stimulation would at least allow farmers to choose between selling the milk and feeding it to the calf. Calving difficulty can cause losses to both the calf and the cow, so this trait may be important, especially when crossing with exotic breeds with larger body sizes than indigenous breeds or with known dystocia problems. Temperament is important in any situation where interaction with humans is critical, especially when animals are used for draft purposes or when animals must be milked regularly.

Physical appearance:

 Finally, different aspects of physical appearance may be important. As already mentioned, body size is important for both beef and draft purposes. Coat color or traits of the horns may be of importance for traditional or cultural reasons and thus may affect the market value of an animal. Udder traits may be associated with milk production, resistance to mastitis or ease of milking .

This is already obvious in the fact that some traits, such as those related to reproduction are listed in both columns. In addition, sale of male dairy animals can be a significant source of income and some animals may be used for draft purposes. The relative importance of these traits will be different in different areas and is important in determining the final breeding objectives.

The least-squares means of performance traits of buffaloes across breed blood levels in the western hills of Nepal (Rasali et al 1998a)

Performance traits Buffalo breed blood
Hill buffalo 50% Murrah crossbreds 75% Murrah crossbreds
1. 305-day lactation yield, litres 874.7±30.7(234) 1222.7±41.8(93) 1560.3±51.3(61)
2. Milk fat content, % 7.0± 0.2 (234) 7.0± 0.2 (90) 6.7± 0.3 (61)
3. Lactation length, days 351.3± 9.8 (223) 354.9±14.4 (88) 379.9±17.6 (57)
4. Age at first calving, months 52.9± 0.8 (215) 56.6± 1.2 (86) 55.5± 1.6 (53)
5. Calving to first service, days 197.8±14.0 (202) 189.1±20.8 (76) 201.9± 3.0 (45)
6. Calving interval, days 495.9±16.4 (188) 446.4±25.4 (63) 500.6±29.7 (47)
Figures in the parentheses indicate the number of records.

 

3. Conclusion.

Breeding plans for buffalo should aim to meet the milk and meat quality requirements and marketing channels should be developed. At the same time, it should be realized that the crossbred will need to survive and perform under the indigenous system practiced in the hills.

Meat and milk production should concentrate on prolific indigenous valley breeds under sedentary and stall-fed conditions. Genetic improvement of indigenous breeds should be done. Emphasis should be placed on intensifying buffalo production.

Improvement in genetic potential can only be realized with concurrent improvements in health, nutrition and management. To this end, strategic drenching, mineral supplementation and improved marketing should be prioritized, as well as more general strategies directed towards alleviating the winter feed deficit.

It should be emphasized that it is the large ruminants that are responsible for the nutritional imbalance and environmental degradation associated with present grazing systems. With this in mind, strategies to increase the proportion of large ruminants maintained under stall feeding regimes should be encouraged so that pasture depletion does not take place.

References:

CBS. 1997. Agricultural statistics Nepal -1996-97 Central Bureau of Statistics, National Planning Commission Secretariat, Kathmandu, Nepal. pp. 17-21.

Customs Dept.1995. Customs records for 1994/95. Department of Customs, His Majesty?s Government of Nepal.

Moioli, B.M. 1996. An analysis of recent statistics on buffalo milk production and use in the world. Buffalo Journal. 2:115-126.

Pradhan, S.L., Sherchand, L. and Shrestha, N.P. 1996. Policy and strategy for conservation of animal genetic resources in Nepal. Department of Livestock Services, Lalitpur, Nepal.

Rasali, D.P. 1998. Present status of indigenous buffalo genetic resources in the western hills of Nepal. Proceedings of the 4th Global Conference on Conservation of Domestic Animal Genetic Resources. Rare Breeds International. p. 168-170.

Rasali, D.P. 2000. Recent trends in buffalo production in Nepal- a review. Buffalo Newsletter. The FAO Inter-Regional Cooperative Research Network on Buffalo, Europe-Near East. No. 14, pp-6-10.

Rasali, D.P. and Crow, G.H. 1999. Production of buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) in the mountains and hills of Nepal: Constraints and opportunities. FAO/ILRI/ICIMOD/CIP Livestock in Mountain/Highland Production Systems E-Conference (Nov.-Dec. 1999) Highlands-L@mailserv.fao.org .

Rasali, D.P. Gurung, D.B. and Yadav, E.R. 1998a. Performance recording of lactating local and crossbred cows and buffaloes of various exotic breed blood levels under farmers? management in the Western Hills (1995-97). Lumle Agricultural Research Centre, Pokhara, Nepal. Working Paper No. 98/39:14 pp.

Rasali, D.P., Joshi, H.D., Patel, R.K. and Harding, A.H. 1998b. Phenotypic clusters and karyotypes of indigenous buffaloes in the Western Hills of Nepal. Lumle Agricultural Research Station, Pokhara, Nepal. Technical Paper No. 98/2: 24 pp.

Rasali, D.P., Suwal, M.R.S., Vaidya, A.K. and Joshi, K.D. 1996. Contribution of livestock to soil fertility management system in the western mountains of Nepal. Proc. Workshop on formulating a strategy for soil fertility research in the hills of Nepal 17-18 August, 1995. (Ed. Joshi et al.). Lumle Agricultural Research Centre, Pokhara, Nepal/ Natural Resource Institute, London, UK. pp. 43-52.

Shrestha, H.R., Kunwar, B.S., Mandal, P., Thapa, M.S. and Pandey, S.B. 1998. Effect of feeding urea and molasses treated rice and wheat straw diet on the body weight gain and carcass characteristics of male buffalo calves. Proc. 8th World Conf. Anim. Prod., Seol, Korea, pp. 70-71.
Singh, D.B. 1997. Buffalo Production Unit. In: Annual Report- Livestock Development Farm, Lampatan, Pokhara, Nepal-1995/96.

Singh, S.B. and Chapagain, D.P. 1998. Livestock sector in the Agriculture Perspective Plan. In: Proceedings of the first national workshop on animal genetic resources conservation and genetic improvement of domestic animals in Nepal- April 11-13, 1994 (Ed. J.N.B. Shrestha). Nepal Agricultural Research Council, Khumaltar, Nepal. pp. 117-128.

2 thoughts on “Economic Important Traits of Buffalo and Their Implication

  1. Nowadays people knows the real author within a couple of hours. Provide proper citation before putting in your website.

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