Role of Commercial Banks in Agricultural Development in Nepal


The commercial banks play an important role in accelerating the development of an economy. The commercial bank is the great institution that conducts the payment mechanism of country. The individuals and institutions make payments to each other through the mechanism of commercial bank. The commercial bank plays a leading role in the smooth operation of an economy .it makes available all financial services to individuals and institutions.

Commercial banks are those which collect the immobilized capital from public, organizations etc as deposits and invest these capitals in different sectors like business, industries, and services etc, which fulfill the demands of capital in these sectors. The development of an economy in fact depends upon the development of commercial banks to some extent. the role  commercial  bank is significant not only in mobilizing saving but also in making investment for the development of different sectors of the economy. Their role is also important for the poverty reduction, raising employment opportunities between the richer and poorer section of the society. These are also called financial intermediator. Therefore it is called an engine economic growth. Development of the commercial banks has become the basis for measuring the level of economic growth of a nation.

Functions of commercial banks

Major functions of commercial banks are :

ü  To accept deposit from the Nepalese people government as well as from the foreigners with or without the interest form.

ü  To provide advance loans on sufficient securities of gold,silver,ornaments,government securities and promissory notes ,movable properties or documents of little connected therewith,share and debentures of the companies registered in the Nepalese companies act , bill of exchange to the reliable person or clients. Besides,they are bound to provide advance loans in certain minimum percentage of their total deposit in the priority sector of which are fixed on the direction of Nepal Rastra bank.

ü  On joint security of two or more reliable persons accepted by board, they act to provide loan to reliable persons. These are repayable on demand and for periods not exceeding six months.

ü  For the purpose of import and export business or other commercial purpose they issue letter of credit to the entrepreneurs.

ü  They act as agents of commission on behalf of clients in selling, purchasing, transferring and receiving in safe custody shares and debentures of companies with limited liabilities and also in sending remittance to any part of country and other countries. Thus they transfer money from one place to another through cheques, T.T., draft, fax etc and charge certain commission instead of this act.

ü  Although the transactions of foreign exchange are handled by the central bank, in general yet in certain circumstances, the commercial banks act to transact foreign exchange. But all the statement relating to foreign exchange transaction that have done by the commercial banks should point out to the central banks.

ü  In the places, where central banks services are absent, the commercial banks act as a government’s bank.

Objectives :

a)      Collection of immobilized money from public, organization etc and investment in government securities and company equities, lending to commercial as well as productive sectors, foreign exchange, remittance,merchant banking, correspondent banking etc.

b)      To provide banking services to the people and business in the country and to provide micro credit to the priority sector of government sector.

Some Achievements of the Commercial Banks

The number of commercial bank branches operating in the country increased to 1245 in Mid – July 2011 from 980 in mid July 2010. Among the total bank branches, 50.5 percent bank branches are concentrated in the central region followed by Western18.0 percent, Eastern 17.3 Mid Western 8.0 percent and Far Western 6.0 percent respectively. The share of loans and advances to total assets remained 60.1 percent in Mid – July 2011. Similarly, share of investment and liquid funds to total assets registered 17.0 percent and 11.2 percent respectively.

Out of the Rs. 528,023 million outstanding sector wise credits in Mid – July 2011, the largest proportion of the loans and advances is occupied by manufacturing sector. The share of this sector is 21.7 percent followed by wholesale & retailers 20.8 percent, other sector 12.7 percent, finance, insurance & real estate by 11.3 percent and construction 9.8 percent. Similarly, transportation, communication & public services comprise 4.7 percent, consumable loan by 6.2 percent, other service industries by 4.3 percent and agriculture by 2.4 percent in the same period.

Capital fund of commercial banks increased by 45.0 percent compared to previous year and reached to Rs. 59,064 million in Mid – July 2011. It was Rs. 40,720 million in Mid – July 2010. The total investment including share & other investment of commercial banks in Mid – July 2011 increased by 11.6 percent and remained to Rs. 149,557 million from Rs. 134,041 million in Mid – July 2010. Similarly liquid fund decreased by 4.6 percent and amounted to Rs. 98,072 million in Mid – July 2011.



1        Nepal Bank Limited, Estd. in 1937/11/15 Dharmapath, Kathmandu

2        Rastriya Banijya Bank, Estd. in1966/01/23 Singhdarbarplaza, Kathmandu

3       Nabil Bank Limited, Estd. in1984/07/16 Kantipath, Kathmandu

4        Nepal Investment Bank Limited, Estd. in1986/02/27 Durbar Marg, Kathmandu

5        Standard Chartered Bank Nepal Limited, Estd. in 1987/01/30 NayaBaneshwar, Kathmandu

6        Himalayan Bank Limited, Estd. in1993/01/18 Thamel, Kathmandu

7        Nepal SBI Bank Limited, Estd. in1993/07/07 Hattisar, Kathmandu

8        Nepal Bangladesh Bank Limited, Estd. in1993/06/05 NayaBaneshwar, Kathmandu

9        Everest Bank Limited, Estd. in1994/10/18 Lazimpat,  Kathmandu

10     Bank of Kathmandu Limited, Estd. in1995/03/12 Kamaladi, Kathmandu

11     Nepal Credit and Commerce Bank Limited, Estd. in1996/10/14 Siddharthanagar, Rupandehi

12     Nepal Industrial & Commercial Bank Limited, Estd. in1998/07/21 Biaratnagar, Morang

13     Lumbini Bank Limited, Estd. in1998/07/17 Narayangadh, Chitawan

14     Machhapuchhre Bank Limited, Estd. in2000/10/03 Prithvichowk, Pokhara

15     Kumari Bank Limited, Estd. in2001/04/03 Durbarmarg, Kathmandu

16     Laxmi Bank Limited, Estd. in2002/04/03 Adarshanagar, Birgunj

17     Siddhartha Bank Limited, Estd. in2002/12/24 Hattisar, Kathmandu

18     Agriculture Development Bank Ltd.,Estd. in 2006/03/16 Ramshahapath, Kathmandu

19     Global Bank Ltd.,Estd. in 2007/01/02 Birgunj, Parsa 4231198 4231057

20     Citizens Bank International Ltd. ,Estd. in2007/06/21 Kamaladi, Kathmandu

21     Prime Commercial Bank Ltd. ,Estd. in2007/09/24 New Road, Kathmandu

22     Bank of Asia Nepal Ltd. ,Estd. in2007/10/12 Tripureswor, Kathmandu

23     Sunrise Bank Ltd.,Estd. in 2007/10/12 Gairidhara Crossing, Kathmandu

24     Development Credit Bank Ltd. ,Estd. in2008/05/25 Kamaladi, Kathmandu

25     NMB Bank Ltd. ,Estd. in2008/06/05 Babarmahal, Kathmandu

26     Kist Bank Ltd. ,Estd. in2009/05/07 AnamNagar, Kathmandu

27     Janata Bank Nepal Ltd. ,Estd. in2010/04/05 NayaBaneshwar, Kathmandu

28     Mega Bank Nepal Ltd. ,Estd. in2010/07/23 Kantipath, Kathmand

29     Commerz& Trust Bank Nepal Ltd. ,Estd. in2010/09/20 Kamaladi, Kathmandu

30     Civil Bank Litd.  , Estd. in2010/11/26 Kamaladi, Kathmandu

31     Century Commercial  Bank Ltd.  , Estd. in2011/03/10 Putalisadak , Kathmandu

Agriculture sector loans and advances of some Commercial Banks :

(mid July 2011)


Loan in million(Rs)




Loan in million(Rs)


























Investment Policy of Commercial Banks

To every bank board of directors generally formulates as investment policy statement in order to define the objectives of the bank, liquidity management and investment portfolio. Investing the deposits and capital in varieties of earning assets is known as portfolio management. The basis of loan portfolio depends on the deposit mix it has. Change of acquiring profitable assets in high in permanent funds. On the contrary, if the funds are of short term nature, the banks give full attention for its liquidity position than its investment. Hence a sound investment policy of bank is such that its funds are distributed on different types of assets with good profitability on one hand and provides maximum safety and security to the depositors and bank on the other hand. The five basic principles of investment, which they follow while making loans and advances are liquidity, profitability, safety, security and suitability of dispersal.

Financial Investment Procedures of Commercial Banks

Basically, there are two types of lending by banks;

  1. Collateral lending; the borrower has to provide some security of collateral.
  2. Personal lending; the banks extended credit on the basis of his creditability.

In regarding to discount and advances, a customer is lent funds in two ways;

  1. 1.      By discounting or purchasing bill of the customer.
  2. 2.      By lending money against the promissory executed by the customer without collateral security.

Some of the commercial banks having major roles in investing sector for agricultural development :

  1. 1.            Agricultural Development Bank (ADB/N)

Agricultural Development Bank, Nepal (ADB/N) is one of the largest financial institutions of the country and it was established in 1968. Since its inception it has been contributing to the socio-economic development of the rural populace of the country by providing the rural credit extensively. It occupies more than 71% share of institutional credit.

Meanwhile delivers services through three windows such as Development Financing, banking in 1984 with envisaging the major aim to collect urban resources thereby mobilize savings in the form of rural credit in order to fulfill the demand of rural populace so far.

Besides, ADB/N initiated Small Farmer’s Development Program in 1975 undertaking the major objective to improve socio-economic condition of poor people of countryside. After 1993, this poverty reduction program has been transferred into Small Farmer’s Cooperative Ltd with the support of German Technical Cooperation Agency (GTZ).

As per its mandate, Major objective of ADB/N has been envisaged:

To provide rural credit across the country particularly to ameliorate socio-economic condition of rural populace.

However, specific objectives of ADB/N are:

  • To provide institutional credit to support the needs of rural people.
  • To supply credit for promoting technical activities.
  • To mobilize urban resources in the rural areas.
  • To extend credit services in cottage and agro-based industries.
  • To support poverty reduction program through different target oriented micro-credit and micro finance programs.
  • Ø To fulfill these objectives, ADB/N provides credit on the basis of short, medium and long-term form to the individual farmers, entrepreneurs, groups and co-operatives societies.


  1. 2.            Nepal Bank Limited

Nepal Bank Limited (NBL) was established on November 15, 1937 A.D. (Kartik 30, 1994 BS). This marked the beginning of an era of formal banking in Nepal. The bank’s 51% share is held by the government and rest by private individuals.


To remain the leading financial institution of the country.


  • Continue to maintain leading share of banking sector with a significant presence in all major geographical areas in the country.
  • Provide competitive and customer oriented banking service to all customers through competent and professional staff.
  1. 3.            RastriyaBanijya Bank (RBB)

It is fully government owned largest commercial bank in Nepal. RBB was established on 23 January 1966. It provides various banking services to a wide range of customers including banks, insurance companies, industrial trading houses, airlines, hotels and many other sectors. It has Nepal’s most extensive banking network with over 113 branches.

  1. 4.            Himalayan Bank Limited

Himalayan Bank Limited was established in 1992 by the distinguished business personalities of Nepal in partnership with Employees Provident Habib Bank Limited, one of the largest commercial bank of Pakistan. It is the first commercial bank of Nepal with maximum shareholding by the Nepalese private sector.


To become a leading bank of the country by providing premium products and services and then ensuring attractive and substantial return of the stakeholder.


To become the bank of first choice parts of the country; these program are intended living standard. Products and Services Credits card, tele banking, automatic teller machine (ATM), 24 hours banking.

  1. 5.            Kumari Bank Limited (KBL)

It was established as the fifteenth commercial bank of Nepal in April 03, 2001 (Chitra 21, 2057) with an objective of providing competitive and modern banking services in Nepal. KBL has been able to recognize itself as innovative and growing institution starving to enhance customer value and satisfaction by backing transparent business practice, professional management, corporate governance and total quality management as the organization mission.


  • Provide world class services to our consumers at high satisfaction level.
  • Practice total quality management and embrace good governance.
  • Optimize our assets to achieve sound business growth.


  • Customer oriented. Client is always our first priority.
  • Employees have direct input and control over work processes.
  • Employees are treated equitably with respect and good faith.
  1. 6.            Laxmi Bank Limited (LBL)

It was established in April 2002 as a commercial bank with a view to provide safe, seamless, quick and advance banking services. The bank has been heavily investing in contemporary banking technologies.


Bank is committed to excellent in delivery of entire gamut of finance services in order to achieve sound business growth and maximize stakeholder values by embracing team spirit, progressive technology and good corporate governance.


It has envisioned that it shall be/ have:

  • Provider of most integrated financial services.
  • Key player in consumer banking
  • The best capability
  • The best It capability
  • Preferred employer in finance sector.
  1. 7.            Nepal Industrial and Commercial Bank Limited (NIC Bank)

             Nepal industrial and commercial Bank Limited (NIC Bank), established on 21st July 1998, is the first commercial bank in the country to capitalize at Rs. 500 million. NIC Bank is committed to provide superior banking products and financial services to its patrons through efficient and cost-effective service delivery, offering of new innovative product and friendly consumer service and at the same time maintaining confidentiality, professionalism and good governance.

(Various references were taken to prepare this article.)

Download Full Article: Role of Commerical Banks in Agricultural Development of Nepal

One thought on “Role of Commercial Banks in Agricultural Development in Nepal

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