Botanicals (Plant Materials) Commonly Used For Insect-Pest Management.

Introduction: 

Botanicals are the pesticides derived from the plant materials.  They are very effective in controlling the insect- pest because they possess repellant, knock down, anti-feedant, broad spectrum properties and also they are important because they are less hazardous, biodegradable, and maintain balanced bio-diversity of insect-pest. Use of botanicals is an age old practice where people used to utilize the extracts from the plant parts to control the insects. There are many such examples as use of neem dust to control the stored grain pest, use of various plant extracts like Acorus sps, Melia sps, Acacia sps etc

Plant based insecticides (PBI) or botanicals have been used for many centuries (Jacobson, 1958,1975)   among  limited resource farmers in developing countries to control insect pests of both field crops and stored  produce, but their potential was initially limited and ignored. Nicotine, rotenone and pyrethrum were popular  among the PBIs  used to some  extent for  storage pests control and other pests in  green houses  (Schmutterer, 1981). Some of these plant species possess one or more useful properties such as repellency, antifeedant, fast knock down, flushing action, biodegradability, broad-spectrum of activity and ability  to  reduce insect  resistance   (Olaifa et al., 1987; Stoll, 1988).  However,  most of them are either weak insecticidally or may require other plant species with different mode of action (depending on the ratio and rate of application) to increase their potency ( Sommers, 1983;  Oparaeke, 2004).  For instance,   Xylopia  aethiopica  (Dunal)  (A.Rich.)  is  found to  be   weak  insecticidally  for control of Callosobruchus  maculatus Fab.o nbruchid (Oparaeke, 1997; Oparaeke and Bunmi, 2004) and on field pests of cowpea (Oparaeke, 2004). However, ground, dried fruit of   X. aethiopica   (African pepper or

Ethiopian pepper) mixed with chillies    (Capsicum spp.)  and  applied to kola nuts was  found to have repellent properties against kola weevils (Burkill, 1985).Extracts of chilli pepper in mixture with garlic     (Allium sativum L.),  onion    (Allium cepa L.) bulbs extracts and  lemon  grass   (Cymbopogon  citrates Staph.)   leaf extract were found very effective against some  leaf eating   insect   pests of  crops  (Stoll, 1988). In South East Asia, rice farmers are said to use a mixture of chilli pepper, dried tobacco  leaves, Tubli root, and Croton tiglum against stem borers (Anonymous, 1977).In the Philippines, farmers have been reported using a mixture of Derris roots, seeds of Jatropha curcas and  Barringtonia  asiatica to control Leptocorisa acuta on rice (Blauw, 1986 in Stoll(1988).

In South Eastern  Nigeria,  rural  farmers mix   chilli  pepper  and  wood  ash of  Parkia spp., Elaeis guineensis,  Eucalyptus spp.o r Azadirachta indica (A.Ju ss) to control  Podagricasp.on okra plants,  Abelmoschus   esculentus   L. Amadi,   A.O ., 1993,   personal communication).  The natives in this are also use the mixture of Chromolaena odorata L. and Ocimum gratissimum   L.  lea f extracts torepel termites, “tailor ants” and “soldier ants” around their houses. Si milarly, an admixture of waterfrom fermented cassava (Manihot esculentus Crantz) tubers and bitter leaf (Vernonia amygdelina L.)has shown potency against “tailor ants” infesting local pear fruits and leaves in eastern Nigeria. Sincethere   is paucity of documented information on the use of plant extract mixtures in pest control, this study was aimed  at    assessing the efficacy of mixtures of plant extracts for management of pests of cowpea plants.

People have used many techniques for the preparation and use of botanicals from time to time.Some of the methods of preparation are herby furnished as: 

Methods of Preparation

 Method – 1 Ingredients:

· Pods of Datura [Datura sirumarium]           1 kg

· Seeds of Arali [Nerium oleander]                1 kg

· Tobacco waste                                             1 kg

· Lime [diluted calcium Carbonate]                250 g

· Cow Urine                                                    5 lit

· Mud pot (10 ltr. capacity)                       1.

Preparation Method: 

  • The pods of Datura to be finely powdered; the seeds of Arali pounded well. The Tobacco waste and lime to be added to the above mixture, add 5 lit of cow urine and put all in a mud pot.
  • The mud pot is covered with a lid and buried inside the manure  pit / soil for 7 days
  • Then the above mixture is filtered and diluted at the rate 1:10 Ltrs of water and sprayed for the control of all pests.

Method – 2 Ingredients:

· Rhizomes of (Gloriosa superba )                             1 k g

· Pods of Datura                                                         1 k g

· Leaves of Ekka (Calotropis gigantea)                      1 kg

· Leaves of Adathoda (Adathoda vasica)                   1 kg

· Tobacco waste                                                          500 g

· Cow Urine                                                                5 lit

· Mud pot (10 ltr capacity)                                          1

Preparation method:

  • The Rhizomes of Gloriosa superba to be finely chopped. The  pods of Datura, the leaves of Ekka and the leaves of Adathoda to be nicely grounded and add the Tobacco waste to the above mixers. Add 5 lit of cow urine and transfer into a mud pot.
  • The mud pot is covered with a lid and burried inside the manure pit / soil for 7 days.
  • Then the above mixture is filtered and diluted at the rate 1:10 lit of water and sprayed for the control of all pests.

The lists of the Botanicals (plant materials) with their parts used and targeted pest.

Conclusion:

Finally we came to know through with the identification of the botanicals, their corresponding plant, their parts used, targeted pest. From the assignment, we can easily say that many field crops can be controlled from the potential threat of the insects through use of the botanicals and use of botanicals is important and effective indeed.

 We can also draw the conclusion that  botanical  mixtures  could   form the basis for a successful formulation  and  commercialization of  Bio-pesticides  in developing countries, where  low input agriculture  is  in vogue.  Example, I n  Nigeria,  such  plants  are  readily  available  in  the  local markets all the year round for farmers’ use to protect their crops. Since the materials are used in ethno-botany for the treatment of various ailments, they are safe, cheap, easily biodegradable, and technologically and environmentally friendly.  They could provide valuable alternatives to the synthetic insecticides in the management insect pests of field crops in limited resource farmer’s farms.  Further studies are required to ascertain their optimum mixture levels and spraying schedules for optimum grain yield.

Acknowledgement

We would like to express our gratitude towards our lecturer Mr. Sundar Tiwari, Department Of Entomology, IAAS Rampur campus, Rampur Chitwan for providing us an ample opportunity for preparing this report on “Identification of botanical plant materials commonly used in insect-pest management”. We are also thankful to all our team members who directly and indirectly involved in preparing this report. All the efforts that have been placed through, during this assignment are again highly acknowledged.

References:

Allen, T. C., Dicke, R. J. and Harris, H. H.; Sabadilla, Schoenocaulon spp.w ith reference to its toxicity to houseflies; Journal of Economic Entomology; 37(3): 400 –407; 1944.

Ivbijaro, M. F.; The efficacy of seed oils of Azadirachta indica A.Ju ss and Piper guineense Schum and Thonn on the control of Callosobruchus maculatus Fab.; Insect Science and its Application; 68:339 – 343; 1990.

Jacobson, M.; Insecticides from plants: a review of the literature, 1941 – 1953; U. S Dept.Agric. Handbook, 154. U.S Department of Agriculture, Washington; 1958; 299 pp.

Jacobson, M.; Insecticides from plants: a review of the literature, 1954 – 1961; U. S Dept. Agric. Handbook, 461. U.S Department of Agriculture, Washington; 1975; 138 pp.

Jain, M. K. and Apitz-Castro, R.; Garlic: a product of spilled ambrosia; Current Science; 65:148 – 156; 1993.

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